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Glossary of Abrasives Terms

Abrasive Planing - Sanding glued-up or lumber banded man made panels prior to intermediate sanding or the application of overlays.

Backing - A flexible or semi-rigid material to which abrasive grain is bonded by adhesive. Paper, cloth, fiber, polyester and combination are the major backings used for coated abrasives.

Belt Splice - The area of an abrasive belt where the two ends are joined together with an adhesive to make an endless belt.

Butt Splice - Two pieces of coated abrasive "butted" together (with no overlap) to form an endless belt. A very strong, thin, Mylar® tape is used on the back of the splice to hold it together. Belts made in this configuration are bi-directional and run smoother.

Chatter An undesirable, repetitive pattern created on the surface of a work piece, usually at regular-spaced intervals, due to an out-of-round or out of balance condition in the abrasive machine.

Closed coat - A coated abrasive product covered 100% by abrasive grain on the coat side of the backing for maximum abrasive exposure.

Coated Abrasive Products formed by bonding abrasive grain with an adhesive to backing.

Directional Arrow Printed on the back of coated abrasives, directional arrows point the direction the belt should be run on a machine. However, belts with a butt splice are bi-directional and the arrows do not apply.

Disc Back-up Pad A support pad designed to back up a coated abrasive disc during sanding.

Electrocoat The method of coating grain to backing where the abrasive grain is electrostatically oriented to produce maximum sharpness and even spacing between adjacent grains.

F.E.P.A. "Federation of European Producers of Abrasives". Normally used to describe a European grading system for abrasive grain to differentiate it from the USA A.N.S.I. system. In most cases the letter "P" prior to the grit designation represents a F.E.P.A. graded product.

Glazing - Formation of a layer of the material being sanded over the cutting edges of abrasives grains. It can be avoided or minimized by proper selection of abrasive, contact wheels, use of fluids or greases, or changing belt speeds.

Glue Bond Coated abrasive products that use animal hide glue in both the make and the size adhesive coats.

Hook and Loop (H&L) A Velcro ® type backing on coated abrasive products which permits easy application to and removal from a backup pad.

Make Coat The first adhesive coat, which adheres the abrasive grain to the backing, thereby ensuring proper anchoring and orientation of the abrasive grain.

Open Coat A coated abrasive product in which abrasive grain covers approximately 50-70% of the coat side surface to help resist loading.

Oscillation Sander A pad type sander that uses a short, high-speed oscillating stroke, producing fast stock removal with a straight line finish.

Platen - A flat or shaped support which backs up a coated abrasive belt in the area where pressure is applied to the work piece. Usually metal or wood, the platen may be surfaced with resilient material and a lubricant such as graphite covered canvas.

Pneumatic Drum Sanding Contour sanding with coated abrasive sleeves mounted onto canvas-covered inflatable rubber drums.

PSA (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive) An adhesive applied to the backing of coated abrasive products which permits easy product application to and removal from a backup pad.

Resin A synthetic adhesive used as a bonding agent or coat for coated abrasive products.

Shedding- Term used to denote the loss of abrasive grain from a product during the grinding process by means other than attributive wear.

Size Coat The second adhesive coat applied to a coated abrasive product. The "size" coat unites with the make coat and ensures the final anchoring of the grain and proper total adhesive level to the finished product.

Stearate A soapy, powdery (usually zinc or calcium base) substance added on top of the size coat, designed to resist loading.

Swirl Marks Circular grinding marks or scratch pattern left by rotational type tools such as abrasive discs.

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